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воскресенье, 2 мая 2010 г.

Blends. It's funtastic!

Blending - популярный способ словообразования в современном английском языке. Blend (в русском языке подобные слова называются словами-гибридами) – слово, образованные путём "склейки" двух слов, обычно начала первого и конца второго. Например, слово Bradgelina, часто доносящееся с экранов телевизоров, и есть пример слова-гибрида  (Brad+Angelina).
Ранее подобные слова с лёгкой руки Льюиса Кэрролла назывались portmanteau words (слова-бумажники). Слова-бумажники были объяснены Алисе Шалтаем-Болтаем в одной из глав сказки "Алиса в Зазеркалье". Некоторые из изобретённых Кэрроллом слов стали частью английского языка, например galumph (gallop + triumph), и chortle (chuckle + snort).
Мода на такие слова появилась в 1890-х во многом благодаря Кэрроллу. 
Примеры можно привести следующие: electrocute ( electricity + execute), впервые появившееся в 1889; prissy ( prim + sissy), около 1895; brunch (breakfast taken nearly at lunchtime), 1896; travelogue (travel + monologue), 1903; mingy (mean + stingy), 1911; scientifiction (science + fiction) создано Хьюго Гернсбеком в 1916; motel ( motor hotel), 1925; sexpert (an expert on sex), 1924; sexational (sex + sensational), 1925; guesstimate (guess + estimate), 1936.
Среди английских слов-гибридов многие обозначают языки, на которые оказал сильное влияние английский, например: Spanglish, Japlish, Swedlish, Runglish, Denglisch. К этой "лингвистической группе" можно также отнести mockney (mock+Cockney), язык некоторых британских поп-звёзд, и slanguage (slang+language).
К другой группе английских слов-гибридов относятся слова, обозначающие физические упражнения. К примеру, Callanetics (имя собственное Callan Pinckney + athletics) , jazzercise (jazz + exercise), и по аналогии aquacise, dancercise, sexercise, и slimnastics. В области спорта есть такие глаголы как parascending (parachute + ascending) и surfari (surfe + safari), а также прилагательные sportsational or swimsational (sport/swim + sensational).
Много слов-гибридов родилось в сфере СМИ, шоубизнеса и рекламы. Среди них: advertorial (an advertisement written as though it were an editorial); docutainment (a documentary written as entertainment, with variable felicity concerning actual events); infomercial ( a television commercial in the form of an information announcement); magalogue (a cross between a magazine and a catalogue). В области развлечений встречаются такие примеры, как animatronics ( animated + electronics), camcorder (camera + recorder), rockumentary (a rock documentary).
В области политики и экономики также встречается достаточно слов-гибридов. Clintonomics, Reaganomics, и Rogernomics образованы "склейкой" фамилии политика со словом economics. Благодаря политикам в Британии также появилось забавное слово beerage, означающее лидеров торговли алкогольными напитками, но оно так и не вошло в моду. В США есть такое слово-гибрид, как Californicate (California + fornicate).
Ещё одна область, давшая большое количество слов-гибридов – область науки и техники. Это такие слова, как transistor (transfer + resistor), Chunnel (Channel + tunnel), smog (smoke + fog); nucleonics (nucleon + electronics), и transputer (transistor + computer).
В настоящее время очень многие неологизмы английского языка образуются именно с помощью blending.

Привожу некоторые примеры с объяснением на английском языке:

Adultolescence (adult +adolescence) - living with one's parents as an adult, esp. after college graduation.
Amerindians (American + Indian) - any of the native people of North American.
Automagically (automatic + magic) - describing an action which occurs automatically in a mysterious or magical way, especially when performed by a computer or machine.
Beaulicious (beautiful +delicious)- pleasing for both the eyes and the mouth; both aesthetically pleasing and tasty.
Beerios (beer + cheerios) - cereal topped with beer instead of milk.
Bewrecked (bereft + wrecked) - to be without, or deprived of, a thing lost in a wreck or accident.
Bresilient (brilliant + resilient) - describing something that is great, wonderful, happy, healthy.
Bridezilla (bride + Godzilla) - a woman (about to be married) who is exceptionally spoiled, meticulous, and domineering, especially about the details (however minute) of her own wedding.
Bridorexia (bride + anorexia) - the regimen (of a woman to be married) of restricted diet and/or exercise, undertaken in order to lose weight during the time period leading up to her wedding day, especially to fit into her wedding dress.
Cablinasian (Caucasian + Black + Indian + Asian) - being of Caucasian, Black, Indian, and Asian descent.
Chillax (chill + relax) - to become less tense or rigid.
Confuzzled (confused + puzzled) - bewildered; confused and puzzled at the same time.
Corpsicle (corpse + popsicle) - slang term for a cryogenically frozen body.
Courseware (course + software) - educational software used to teach a subject or course.
Crunk (crazy + drunk) - a mixture between two states of being: crazy and drunk.
Drinkathon (drink + marathon) - an extended party or event involving the consumption of alcohol.
Earworm (ear + worm) - a song stuck in your head.
Edutainment (education + entertainment) - software that entertains while teaching information to the user.
Falloween (fall + Halloween) - first part of fall, during which items are advertised and sold for the Halloween holiday.
Frankenfish (Frankenstein + fish) - genetically engineered fish that glow.
Fratastic (fraternity + fantastic) - a word that describes something that would be extremely popular and prevalent in a fraternity.
Gank (grab + yank) - to take and carry away the property of another without authorization.
Ginormous (giant + enormous) - massive, huge, or large, in either a physical or metaphorical sense.
Giraffiti (giraffe + graffiti) - a drawing or inscription made on a wall or other surface (graffiti) located in a high location or altitude.
Governator (governor + Terminator) - nickname for the governor of California, Arnold Schwarzenegger.
Hellway (hell + hallway) - a corridor that invokes fear in an individual.
Indipop (Indian + pop) - popular Indian music.
Laughgasm (laughter + orgasm) - an orgasm from laughing.
Magriffic (magnificent + terrific) - amazing to behold, as well as providing for an exceptional emotional experience.
Mayhaps (maybe + perhaps) - maybe, perhaps.
Pastability (pasta + possibility) - state of choosing any variety or combination of pasta dishes for a meal.
Prosumer (professional + consumer) - someone shopping for professional needs.
Provacawhoritive (provacative + whore) - extremely immodest behavior, dress, or language.
Sexationship (sex + relationship) - a temporary relationship that is based solely on physical attraction and sex.
Sexcellent (sex + excellent) - extremely pleasing; a higher degree of excellent.
Shopathon (shopping + marathon) - a marathon of shopping; a long continuous day or period of time filled with nothing but shopping.
Slurority (slut + sorority) - a sorority notorious for its members' promiscuous behavior.
Spirmitment (spirit + commitment) - an idea or strong feeling of committed enthusiasm, especially shown by a company for its customers.
Stupious (stupid + studious) - the condition of studying too much to do any good.
Webinar (web + seminar) - a seminar taken online.

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